various type of Stones used in civil engineering

Type of Stones used in civil engineering

The following Eight stones are the variety of commonly used stones in civil engineering works.

varies Building Stone used in civil

  1. Basalt and trap(vary)
  2. Granite
  3. Sandstone
  4. Slate
  5. Literate
  6. Marble
  7. Gneiss
  8. Quartet



Basalt and Trap; varies Building Stone used in civil

  • varies Building Stone used in civil; Basalt and Trap are the structure are medium to fine-grained and compact. Their color varies from dark gray to black. Fractures and joints are common.
  • Their weight varies from 18kN/m3 to 29kN/m3. In this material compressive strength varies from 200 to 350 N/mm2. These are igneous rocks. Normally they are used as road metals, aggregates for concrete.
  • This type of stone Also used for rubble masonry works for bridge piers, river walls, and dams. They are used as pavement.

Granite

  • Granite’s are also igneous rocks. The color varies from light gray to pink. The structure is crystalline, fine to coarse-grained. They take polish well.
  • They are hard durable. The Specific gravity is from 2.6 to 2.7 and, the compressive strength is 100 to 250. This material used primarily for bridge piers, river walls, and dams, etc.
  • They are used as keens and pedestals. The usage of granite for monumental, institutional buildings is common in building construction work.
  • Polished granites are used as tabletops, cladding for columns, and walls. They are used as coarse aggregates in concrete.

Sandstone

  • These are sedimentary rocks and hence stratified. They consist of quartz and feldspar. The sandstone is found in various colors like white, grey, red, buff, brown, yellow, and dark gray colors.
  • This stone specific gravity varies from 1.85 – 2.7 and compressive strength varies, from 20 – 170 N/mm2. Its porosity varies from 5 to 25 percent. The weathering of rocks is very different renders it unsuitable as building stone.
  • These materials are desirable to use sandstones with silica cement for heavy structures used in the necessary. these materials are used for masonry work, dams, bridge piers, and river walls.

Slate

  • These are metamorphic rocks. The structure is fine-grained. In civil engineering work split along the planes of original bedding easily. using different necessary.
  • The varies color from dark gray, greenish-gray, purple-gray to black. The specific gravity is 2.6 to 2.7. Compressive strength varies from 100 to 200 N/mm2.

Literate

  • It is a metamorphic rock. It is having a porous and sponges structure. It contains a high percentage of iron oxide.
  • The specific gravity is 1.85 and compressive strength from 1.9 – 2.3 N/mm2.
  • It can be easily quarried in blocks.
  • With seasoning, it gains strength. When this stone is used as a building, its outer surface should be plastered.
Marble
  • This is a metamorphic rock. It can take a good polish. It was available in different pleasing colors like white color and pink color. specific gravity is 2.65 and compressive strength is 70 to 75 N/ mm2,
  • It is used for facing and ornamental works. It is used for columns, flooring, steps, etc.



Gneiss

  • It is a metamorphic rock. It is having fine to coarse grains. Alternative dark and white bands are common. Light grey, pink, purple, greenish-gray, and dark grey colored varieties are available.
  • These stones are not preferred because of the deleterious constituents present in this type of stone. They may be used in minor constructions. However hard varieties may be used for buildings.
  • specific gravity varies from 2.5 – 3.0 and crushing strength varies from 50 – 200 N/mm2.

Quartet

  • Quarterstaves are metamorphic rocks. They are available in different colors like white, gray, yellowish.
  • The specific gravity varies from 2.55 to 2.65. Crushing strength varies from 50 to 300 N/mm2. They are used as building blocks and slabs. They are also used as aggregates for concrete.

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